Is God a supreme being?
We don’t have an answer to date, God never spoke to humanity, and we have to believe the hearsay evidence provided so far.
If the answer is “Yes” then it is difficult to answer the below question.
Why does he allow the suffering of the innocent?
Is God the protector of All?
it looks like No as you know a lot of innocent victims suffer daily.
Is it that God created laws? and the universe functions according to the laws, we are the by-product of these laws and we have to survive/perish by these laws.
If we understand all the laws of the universe then can we become God?
Looks like “Yes” to an extent where we will be able to manipulate and utilize the laws for our better survival.
If we assume God created laws, and thus we got created, we are bound by laws and thus automatically lead to God.
based on the above we are derivatives of God, Whatever we experience is a godly experience, whether it is good or bad.
Leave everything to “God” till we understand everything.
Till that time let’s try to improve our understanding of laws and apply rational thinking.
I believe this is what Spinoza was trying to convey.
Vedanta and Upanishads say not to believe in everything, question it, and only if you feel it looks rational then believe it.
The best example is Kena Upanishad.
The following two verses give us the example of a rational mind at work.
oṃ keneṣitaṃ patati preṣitaṃ manaḥ kena prāṇaḥ prathamaḥ praiti yuktaḥ |
keneṣitāṃ vācamimāṃ vadanti cakṣuḥ śrotraṃ ka u devo yunakti || 1 ||
By whom willed and directed does the mind light on its subjects? By whom commanded does prana, the first, move? By whose will do men speak this speech? What Intelligence directs the eye and the ear?
Fundamentally the student asks the teacher, what is the cause of our existence.
The answer is given below from the second verse of Kena Upanishad.
śrotrasya śrotraṃ manaso mano yadvāco ha vācaṃ sa u prāṇasya prāṇaścakṣuṣaścakṣuḥ |
atimucya dhīrāḥ pretyāsmāllokādamṛtā bhavanti || 2 ||
It is the ear of the ear, the mind of the mind, the tongue of the tongue, and also the life of the life and the eye of the eye. Being disabused of the false notion, the wise, having left this body, become immortal.
Here the teacher trying to convey that “Brahman” synonymous with “God” is the source of our existence, and if we realize this then it is the ultimate knowledge.
Here is an excellent presentation by Swami Sarvapriyananda
Also please check below